Hypotension: what it is, symptoms, and how to prevent it

 Hypotension: what it is, symptoms, and how to prevent it

Lena Fisher

Also known as low blood pressure, hypotension is the drop in blood pressure that causes discomfort in some situations, such as getting up too quickly, emotional stress, and dehydration.

See also: 5 facts about hypertension that few people know

What is hypotension?

First of all, it is necessary to understand blood pressure Basically, the pressure is an indicator of the intensity of blood flow passing through the arteries. This blood contains nutrients and other important elements that reach the heart, which is responsible for pumping it to other parts of the body. In summary, the pressure is important for the proper functioning of the body.

The first is associated with the most intense blood flow, when the heart is already pumping blood, while the systolic is the blood pressure between beats, when the heart is relaxed and refilling itself with blood. These opposites are important when measuring blood pressure, and appear in thedisplay of the device performing the metric.

Generally the parameters of a normal pressure are around 120 mmHg x 80 mmHg, or 12 by 8. When the values are below 90 by 6, it means hypotension or low pressure.being temporary," explains Nicolle Queiroz, MD, a cardiologist and specialist in sports cardiology.


According to Queiroz, there are several causes of hypotension, which, depending on the reason, is a reaction of the organism: "For example, a serious infection that has the risk of developing into a generalized condition can cause the blood pressure to drop; normally high temperatures favor hypotension, besides standing for a long time, long periods without eating, and standing up abruptly,emotional stress and thermal shock. In the case of heat, the individual is easily dehydrated especially if you do physical activity under the sun and in inappropriate clothing.

However, some diseases and factors have hypotension as a symptom, such as diabetes and the use of some types of medications, like slimmers Therefore, if low blood pressure is a recurring reality in the individual's routine, it is necessary to seek medical help to investigate the origin.

Types of hypotension

They are divided according to causes, and there are three:

Orthostatic or postural: In order to respond to the command, the arteries and veins need to contract quickly to maintain pressure. Discomfort can occur if the contraction mechanism is not efficient in time to bring blood to the brain.

Neurally mediated: Another reason is standing, which in this case can be a long time. emotional stress As a result, the person may even faint.

Shock hypotension: Emotional trauma can also be a factor in this type of hypotension, but the difference is that the body responds in a more extreme way, which can lead to death if the person is not rescued soon.

Symptoms of hypotension

They depend on the origin of the low pressure. But in general, they are signs of hypotension:

  • Dizziness.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Altered vision, as if the scenery is filled with multicolored "little balls". If about to faint, the person begins to see everything black until he or she loses consciousness. The discomfort lasts from seconds to a few minutes.
  • Cold skin and excessive sweating.
  • A change in the color of the skin, which becomes pale.
  • Fainting, when there is severe dehydration or some relevant physical or emotional trauma.

How to prevent and treat

According to Nicolle Queiroz, the best way to prevent the discomforts of hypotension is to avoid the situations that trigger the problem.the heart," explains the cardiologist.

But if the person is experiencing an episode of hypotension with dizziness and altered vision, it is best to lie down and keep them upright. Drinking water and eating a light meal also help stabilize blood pressure. If the person frequently suffers from the discomforts of low blood pressure after getting up quickly, it is essential to avoid sudden movement and to wear compression stockings and pants thathelp circulation, as well as investigating this recurrence.

In more severe cases, such as fainting accompanied by other symptoms for more than 15 minutes, it is necessary to seek urgent help, because some situations may require the use of injectable drugs to regain consciousness and blood pressure.

Frequently asked questions about hypotension

I am pregnant and have low blood pressure, should I be worried?

There is no need to worry, because Pregnancy causes changes in the woman's body, One of them is the circulatory system, which is overloaded to attend to the baby's growth. Thus, it is normal for the blood flow to weaken and pressure to rise as a result. Soon after delivery, the body begins to restore the pre-pregnancy blood pressure, as well as other functions. Obviously, if you experience any persistent symptoms that weakenyour routine, it is necessary to seek professional help.

Is it true that salt helps to improve the discomfort of hypotension?

Many people have the habit of putting salt under their tongue during a pressure drop crisis. However, the ingredient has no relevance in the recovery effect, because it takes time to reach the bloodstream. Therefore, the best thing to do in a hypotensive episode is to rest with your legs up until you get back on your feet.

Does low blood pressure cause sleep?

No, but it does cause indisposition and weakness, which makes the person want to lie down or rest.

I like to do physical activities outdoors and in the heat. Is there a risk of suffering from hypotension?

There is the possibility of being affected, because the excessive heat associated with high physical exertion causes a type of shock and dehydration, because the body gets overheated. So, the best way to avoid this is train at a time when the temperature is milder and prioritize hydration with water and isotonic drinks.

Source: Nicolle Queiroz, cardiologist, specialist in sports cardiology, member of the clinical staff of São Luiz and Albert Einstein hospitals, pioneer in pre-hormonal risk assessment (in vitro fertilization, transsexualization, use of steroids and anabolic steroids for aesthetic and pathological purposes, professor of cardio-sports at Uniguaçu; and Brazilian Society of Cardiology.

Lena Fisher

Lena Fisher is a wellness enthusiast, certified nutritionist, and author of the popular health and well-being blog. With over a decade of experience in the field of nutrition and health coaching, Lena has dedicated her career to helping people achieve their optimal health and live their best life possible. Her passion for wellness has led her to explore various approaches to achieving overall health, including diet, exercise, and mindfulness practices. Lena's blog is a culmination of her years of research, experience, and personal journey towards finding balance and well-being. Her mission is to inspire and empower others to make positive changes in their lives and embrace a healthy lifestyle. When she's not writing or coaching clients, you can find Lena practicing yoga, hiking the trails, or experimenting with new healthy recipes in the kitchen.